Divorce Act

From Clicklaw Wikibooks

The Divorce Act will be changing on July 1, 2020, and so will this wikibook. In the meantime, we've prepared a summary of the more important changes. Read our page on the New Divorce Act.

Divorce Act, RSC 1985, c 3 (2nd Supp)[edit]

The Divorce Act, RSC 1985, c 3 (2nd Supp) is a federal law that you can find, along with other federal laws, at the website of the federal Department of Justice, or on CanLII, a free website for searching Canadian court decisions and legislation. Because of a constitutional rule called the "doctrine of paramountcy," the Divorce Act is considered to be "superior" to the provincial Family Law Act. As a result, if you are entitled to ask for an order under the Divorce Act about child support or spousal support, you probably should.

The Divorce Act only applies to married spouses, people who are or were married to each other by a marriage commissioner or a religious official licensed to perform marriages. If you are not legally married, the Family Law Act is the only game in town. Although the court may allow someone who isn't a spouse to apply under the Divorce Act for an order relating to custody of or access to a child, that person must get the court's permission first, and the spouses must have already started a court proceeding between each other.

You must also be ordinarily resident in your province for at least one year before you can ask for an order under the Divorce Act. This means that you might have to delay filing for a divorce if you've moved to a new province within the last year.

The Divorce Act refers to children as children of the marriage. A child of the marriage is defined in section 2(1) as:

A child of two spouses or former spouses who, at the material time,

(a) is under the age of majority and who has not withdrawn from their charge, or

(b) is the age of majority or over and under their charge but unable, by reason of illness, disability or other cause, to withdraw from their charge or to obtain the necessaries of life.

In other words, a child of the marriage is someone who is less than 19 years old, the age of majority in British Columbia, or who is 19 and older if the child cannot support themselves. Since only people qualifying as spouses are obliged to pay child support, the definition of child of the marriage is expanded in section 2(2) to include stepparents:

For the purposes of the definition “child of the marriage” in subsection (1), a child of two spouses or former spouses includes

(a) any child for whom they both stand in the place of parents; and

(b) any child of whom one is the parent and for whom the other stands in the place of a parent

The Divorce Act covers these basic subjects:

  • divorce,
  • custody of and access to children,
  • child support, and
  • spousal support.

The Divorce Act is going to change in 2020, as a result of Bill C-78. Among other things, how we talk about the care of children will change. We will be talking about "parenting orders" and "parenting plans" that cover "decision-making responsibilities," "parenting time," and "contact" with a child. Other changes will:

  • expand the things courts and parents have to think about when deciding what is in the best interests of children,
  • require parents to protect the children from their conflict,
  • require parents to try to resolve family law disputes out of court before going to court, and
  • implement new rules for when one parent wants to move with a child away from the other parents.

JP Boyd on Family Law provides extensive coverage of the Divorce Act, including a chapter on Divorce Act Basics.

An act; a statute; a written law made by a government. See "regulations."

A mandatory direction of the court that is binding and enforceable upon the parties to a court proceeding. An "interim order" is a temporary order made following the hearing of an interim application. A "final order" is a permanent order, made following the trial of the court proceeding or the parties' settlement, following which the only recourse open to a dissatisfied party is to appeal. Failing to abide by the terms of an order may constitute contempt of court. See "appeal," "consent order," "contempt of court," "decision" and "declaration."

Money paid by one parent or guardian to another parent or guardian as a contribution toward the cost of a child's living and other expenses.

A payment made by one spouse to the other spouse to help with the recipient's day-to-day living expenses or to compensate the recipient for the financial choices the spouses made during the relationship.

Under the Divorce Act, either of two people who are married to one another, whether of the same or opposite genders. Under the Family Law Act, spouse includes married spouses, unmarried parties who have lived together in a marriage-like relationship for at least two years, and, for all purposes of the act other than the division of property or debt, unmarried parties who have lived together for less than two years and have had a child together. See "marriage" and "marriage-like relationship."

In family law, an antiquated term used by the Divorce Act to describe the right to possess a child and make parenting decisions concerning the child's health, welfare and upbringing. See "access."

Under the Divorce Act, the schedule of a parent's time with their children under an order or agreement. Access usually refers to the schedule of the parent with the least amount of time with the child. See "custody."

A person who is younger than the legal age of majority, 19 in British Columbia. See "age of majority."

A legal proceeding in which one party sues another for a specific remedy or relief, also called an "action," a "lawsuit," or a "case." A court proceeding for divorce, for example, is a proceeding in which the claimant sues the respondent for the relief of a divorce order.

The legal termination of a valid marriage by an order of a judge; the ending of a marital relationship and the conjugal obligations of each spouse to the other. See "conjugal rights," "marriage" and "marriage, validity of."

A legal relationship between two persons, whether of the same or opposite genders, that is solemnized by a marriage commissioner or licenced religious official and gives rise to certain mutual rights, benefits, and obligations. See also "conjugal rights," "consortium," and "marriage, validity of."

In law, something that is relevant or important. A material fact, for example, is a fact relevant to a claim or a defence to a claim. See "claim," "evidence" and "fact."

The age at which a child becomes a legal adult with the full capacity to act on their own, including the capacity to sue and be sued. In British Columbia, the age of majority is 19. The age of majority has nothing to do with being entitled to vote or buy alcohol, although federal and provincial laws sometimes link those privileges with the age at which one attains majority. See "disability" and "infant."

In law, a legal incapacity to do certain things, like enter into a contract or start a court proceeding. Legal disabilities include insanity and being under the age of majority. See "age of majority."

In family law, the natural or adoptive father or mother of a child; may also include stepparents, depending on the circumstances and the applicable legislation; may include the donors of eggs or sperm and surrogate mothers, depending on the circumstances and the terms of any assisted reproduction agreement. See "adoptive parent," "assisted reproduction," "natural parent" and "stepparent."

In law, (1) a judge's conclusions after hearing argument and considering the evidence presented at a trial or an application, (2) a judgment, or (3) the judge's reasons. A judge's written or oral decision will include the judge's conclusions about the relief or remedies claimed as well as their findings of fact and conclusions of law. A written decision is called the judge’s "reasons for judgment." See "common law," "conclusions of law" and "findings of fact."

A term under the Family Law Act which describes the time a guardian has with a child and during which is responsible for the day to day care of the child. See "guardian."

A term under the Family Law Act that describes the visitation rights of a person who is not a guardian with a child. Contact may be provided by court order or by an agreement among the child's guardians with parental responsibility for making decisions about contact. See "guardian" and "parental responsibilities."

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