How Do I Appeal a Final Supreme Court Decision?

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A final decision of the Supreme Court is made by a judge following trial or by the agreement of the parties without a trial. Orders made by the agreement of the parties are called consent orders.

A judge's final decision is appealed to the Court of Appeal. Because consent orders are made with everyone's agreement, they are almost impossible to appeal. Nevertheless, if an appeal can be made, it will be made to the Court of Appeal, just like a judge's final order.

It's worth noting that the Court of Appeal revised its procedures and changed its forms in July 2023. As a result, you will want to make sure that you're following the new procedures. If you're reading guides about the Court of Appeal process written before July 2023, which might talk about a special form for seeking leave to appeal (which is no longer applicable), you should stop and read up on the changes that were made. A good resource is the New Court Forms, Completion Instructions and Templates information page from the Court of Appeal itself.

Is an appeal appropriate?[edit]

You should think twice before you decide that you want to appeal a decision, as appeals can be surprisingly expensive. They're usually not as expensive as trials are, but the cost is still substantial. As well, it isn't always necessary to appeal a decision. This is especially important to consider unless the decision is about division of property or debt. Orders, even final orders, which deal with children, child support, and spousal support can often be varied following the decision. Of course to vary an order, there must have been a significant change in circumstances since the original decision was made. Read the section on Changing Supreme Court Family Law Orders in the chapter Family Law Litigation in Supreme Court in the online edition of this wikibook to learn about what a change in circumstances means and how this might permit variation of an order.

The person bringing an appeal is called the appellant. The other party is called the respondent because that party is responding to the appeal. The trial court, the Supreme Court, is called the lower court or the court below, and the judge who heard the trial is called the trial judge.

Appeals to the Court of Appeal are governed by two things: the Court of Appeal Act and the Court of Appeal Rules. You should be familiar with both the Act and the Rules because both contain guidelines and deadlines for the conduct of an appeal. Reading the Rules is not enough!

Finding the forms[edit]

The forms referred to below can be found on the Court of Appeal's website, as well as through the very helpful Justice Education Society's Court of Appeal BC Online Help Guide. Forms are available as both MS Word templates and PDF files. The files marked as "PDF fillable" should be downloaded and saved locally to your computer, then opened directly using a PDF reader rather than your web browser. The PDF fillable forms usually do not work in your web browser's PDF reader.

Making your appeal[edit]

To appeal a decision, you must fill out a Notice of Appeal in Form 1 of the Court of Appeal Rules. File it in the registry of the Court of Appeal and serve it on the other side. The Notice of Appeal is a set form that you must fill out. In it you will have to say:

  1. the parties to the appeal,
  2. the order you are appealing,
  3. the relief you are seeking,
  4. additional information, including whether the action in which the order under appeal originates has a sealing order or anonymous/publication ban, and
  5. information related to service.

The registry of the Court of Appeal will charge you a fee for filing the form, and you'll notice that all of the fees charged by the Court of Appeal are higher than those of the Supreme Court. The registry will stamp your Notice of Appeal with the seal of the court, a date stamp, and the file number of your action. You must then serve the Notice of Appeal on the other side.

Be aware that you have 30 days from the day after the was made to file your Notice of Appeal. The date the order is made is what's important, not the date you receive a judge's reasons. Once the 30 days have run out, you will not be able to make your appeal unless you make a special application to the court for an extension of time. In general, the Court of Appeal is very strict and will demand that you obey the deadlines and rules exactly.

Reasons for appealing a decision[edit]

When a judge makes a decision following a hearing, the judge does three things. First, the judge makes a decision about the evidence and what the facts of the case are; this is called making a finding of fact. Second, the judge decides what the law applicable to the case is. Third, the judge applies the law to the facts. These last two steps are called findings of law.

You cannot appeal a decision simply because you don't like it, and you cannot appeal a decision just to stall its consequences. You must have a proper legal reason for bringing the appeal.

In most cases, you will not be able to appeal a decision because of a mistake in the judge's findings of fact, called an error of fact. As the appeal court does not hear the evidence all over again, unless the trial judge made an enormous error in deciding the facts of the case, the facts that you will rely on at your appeal are the facts as the trial judge found them to be.

Most often, appeals are based on errors in the judge's conclusions about the applicable law or how the judge applied the law to the facts, called an error of law. In appeals like these, the argument is based on a claim that the judge didn't apply the correct legal test or failed to properly apply the correct legal test.

Since appeals normally deal with legal issues rather than factual issues, they can be quite complex and involve a lot of technical arguments. If you are appealing a judge's decision, you should seriously consider hiring a lawyer.

Deadlines and procedures[edit]

Notice of Appeal[edit]

You have 30 days from the day after the order was made (not the date the order is formally written up and entered in the court registry, but the date the order is issued by the judge) to file your Notice of Appeal and serve it on the other side.

Notice of Appearance[edit]

After the respondent has been served with your Notice of Appeal, they will have 10 days to file a Notice of Appearance in Form 2 and serve it on you, acknowledging your appeal. At this point, the respondent may choose to serve a Notice of Cross Appeal in Form 2 against you. This is the respondent's own separate appeal from the trial decision.

Preparing the appeal record, appeal book and transcripts[edit]

This is where things start to get expensive. Within 60 days of filing your Form 1 Notice of Appeal, you must obtain a transcript of the testimony in the court appealed from, file the transcript with the court, and serve a copy on the respondent.

The transcript you must obtain is a transcript of all the oral evidence given at trial. You will have to contact a court reporting company and make arrangements for them to transcribe what was said during the court proceedings. Transcripts are produced by private companies under agreement with the Ministry of Attorney General. You can learn more about these transcription companies, their fees, and the regions and types of court proceedings each is able to serve by visiting the BC Government's website’s court transcripts information page. A court reporter employed by the company retrieves the audio of the hearing from the court and painstakingly transcribes each and every word. J.C. Word Assist Ltd., one of the larger companies that provides this service, charges around $10 to $14 per page (depending on the turnaround time you need) to produce transcripts of court hearings. The rule of thumb is that each hour of a hearing is about 30 pages of transcript. So a typical day in court, which is around four hours of actual court time after the breaks are accounted for, will easily cost over $1,200 to transcribe, plus extra fees for copies.

Also within 60 days after bringing an appeal, under Rule 23 of the Court of Appeal Rules you must prepare an appeal record, file it with the court, and serve a copy on the respondent. The appeal record must contain the following:

  1. The pleadings that were filed in the original court proceeding (the Notice of Family Claim, the Response to Family Claim, and the Counterclaim). If any of them were amended, use the last amended version.
  2. A copy of the entered order under appeal, if available, or, if no copy of the entered order is available, a blank page with an envelope attached in which the copy of the entered order can be inserted once available.
  3. A copy of the reasons for judgment.
  4. A copy of the Form 1 Notice of Appeal.

Under Rule 26 of the Court of Appeal Rules, within 30 days after filing the appeal record, you must prepare an appeal book. You need to file it with the court, and serve a copy on the respondent. The appeal book contains the documentary exhibits that were entered at the trial that are relevant to the appeal. For example, if the appeal is only about parenting time, you would not need to include all of the financial documents that were put in evidence at trial, just the documents that relate to parenting time.

When preparing your appeal book, pay close attention to the Rules and the form and format they require. There are a couple of companies that will prepare your appeal book for you. You can look for these companies' brochures at the Court of Appeal Registry or search for them online (hint "appeal book preparation" or "appeal book services" along with "British Columbia" will produce some results).

You will need a total of six copies of each of these documents — the transcript, the appeal record, and the appeal book — since the court gets four, you'll need one, and the respondent gets one as well.

Since transcripts can often run to several hundred pages, as can appeal books, the cost of this step can be quite high.

After you've filed your appeal book and received the transcripts, you must deliver a copy to the respondent.

Filing your factum[edit]

You have 30 days from the time you filed your appeal record to file your factum. A factum, which iis your written argument as to why the appeal court should make the order you want. You can also explore the Justice Education Society's Court of Appeal BC Online Help Guide, and in particular the pages on preparing specific appeal-related documents. This online resource uses plain language, and links to the Court of Appeal’s own updated document examples, templates, and instructions.

Factums contain standard elements:

  1. Cover page
  2. Table of contents: Listing each part and its page number.
  3. Chronology: A brief, point-form list or table of critical events that are relevant to the issue on appeal.
  4. Opening statement: A concise, one-page statement identifying yourself (as appellant or respondent), the lower court being appealed from, the result of the case before, and the essential point of the appeal (why it should succeed or fail).
  5. Part 1 - Statement of facts: A statement of the facts of the appeal, as the trial judge found them to be.
  6. Part 2 - Errors in judgment: A statement as to how you think the trial judge erred in law.
  7. Part 3 - Argument: Your formal argument, about the law, how the judge applied the law to the facts, and how the judge should have applied the law.
  8. Part 4 - Nature of order sought: A statement of the order you'd like the Court of Appeal to make.
  9. Appendices: List of authorities: A list of the case law you rely on in your argument.
  10. Appendices: Enactments: A list of the acts and regulations you rely on in your argument.

Again, factums are extremely formal, and there are all sorts of rules you must follow in preparing your factum, among which are the following:

  • there is a limit on how many pages long your factum can be,
  • the cover of your factum must be in a buff or beige colour (the respondent's must be green),
  • all pages in your factum except for the index have to be printed on the back side of the page (so that when your factum is open, the text appears on the left page and the right page is blank),
  • each line of your factum must be numbered, and
  • each page must be numbered.

Like I said, factums are extremely formal.

Make a total of six copies of your factum and file them in court. The court will keep four copies, you will keep one, and you must serve the sixth on the respondent.

The respondent's factum[edit]

The respondent has 30 days from their receipt of your factum to file and serve you with their own factum. The respondent's factum is their argument against your position, and will also contain any additional arguments the respondent wants to make in support of their cross appeal.

Filing the Notice of Hearing[edit]

When an appeal is ready for hearing, you must file and serve a Form 5 Notice of Hearing of Appeal under Rule 33 of the Court of Appeal Rules.

Preparing your book of authorities[edit]

Under Rule 27 of the Court of Appeal Rules, you must prepare a book of authorities. This is a binder containing all of the case law and statutes that you are relying on in the argument you've set out in your factum. You should arrange the cases in the order that you set them out in the list of authorities in your factum. Make five copies. One copy is for you, another is for the respondent, and the court will get the remaining three. You must file these three copies with the registry at least three days before the hearing of the appeal.

More information[edit]

For more information on process, see:

  1. Justice Education Society's Court of Appeal BC Online Help Guide, with specific guides for both the appellant and the respondent, as well as flowcharts, and links to forms
  2. The CanLII Manual to British Columbia Civil Litigation, with a good breakdown of the Court of Appeal Rules
  3. The Court of Appeal’s website, in particular:
    1. New Court Forms, Completion Instructions and Templates information page, with lots of official links, document templates, and lists of forms.

This information applies to British Columbia, Canada. Last reviewed for legal accuracy by Justin Werb, October 12, 2023.

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